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Microcephaly: Causes, Symptoms, and Therapy Options

Jan 01st, 2024 | by Zak Moussa

Zak Moussa

January 01st, 2024

What is Microcephaly?

Microcephaly is a rare neurological condition where the baby’s head is smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex, resulting in smaller brains that are not fully developed during pregnancy or after birth.

What is the Cause of Microcephaly?

Microcephaly is usually congenital – presenting at birth. While the exact cause of microcephaly remains unknown, there are some genetic changes and environmental exposures during pregnancy that can increase the risk:

  • Chemicals, alcoholism, and drugs
  • Lack of enough nutrients especially for the first third of pregnancy
  • Infections (i.e., chickenpox, measles, Zika virus)
  • Reduced oxygen supply to the fetus

Microcephaly Symptoms and Signs Include:

What are the Treatment Options for Microcephaly?

There is no known cure or standard treatment for microcephaly as it can range from mild to severe. Therefore, treatment options can vary as well. It is important to work with a multidisciplinary team to develop an individualised plan to support a child in reaching his or her maximal potential.


About the Author

Originally from Egypt, Zak recently migrated to Australia to join the NAPA family. Zak has a great ability to build special bonds with his paediatric clients which assist in achieving greater independence and quality of life goals of participants. Zak has over 10 years of experience in a range of settings including hospitals, communities and his own paediatric clinic. When Zak isn’t working, you’ll find him drinking an expresso, video calling his family in Egypt, exploring Melbourne, and spending time with his partner.

About NAPA Centre 

NAPA Centre provides paediatric therapy services to children diagnosed with GRIN disorder. Learn more about treatment options in this blog post.NAPA specialises in working with children with physical and neurological delays. In addition to working with children with more common diagnoses such as cerebral palsy and Down syndrome, NAPA has a special interest and expertise with children with rare, multiple and complex conditions. NAPA Centre’s Intensive Model of Therapy (IMOT) is world-renowned, and one of the leading clinics in Australia for paediatric therapy programs with a large multi-discliplinary team of Occupational Therapists, Physiotherapists and Speech Therapists all working together. Families routinely travel from all parts of Sydney, the NSW region, from across Australia and even from the Australasian region to access NAPA’s unique and effective programs for their children.


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